The Organ We Love – How The Heart Works

Being the strongest muscle in the body, the hearts purpose is to pump blood through our blood vessels through rhythmic contractions. To regulate blood pressure and volume, the heart secrets “ANF”, which is a very powerful peptide hormone. It affects the regulatory region of the brain, as well as the kidneys, blood vessels, and the […]

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The Female Reproductive System

The Female Reproductive System (Fig. 32) -The internal female genital organs are the 2 ovaries, the 2 uterine tubes, the uteruSand the vagina   Ovaries: The ovaries are 2 almond-shaped bodies (I x 2 x 3 cm), one on either side, close, to the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity suspended to the posterior wall […]

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Posted by DAM on February 10, 2012 in The Digestive System | Short Link

2–1    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 3     The descending colon: It is about 25 cm in length. It extends from the splenic flexure to end at the inlet of the pelvis where it joins the pelvic colon.   The pelvic colon It is about 40 cm in length. It begins at the inlet of […]

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Posted by DAM on February 10, 2012 in The Digestive System | Short Link

1 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 2   The stomach: (Fig. 26) It is the most distensible part of the alimentary tract It transmits food from the oesophagus to the duodenum, li lies in the upper left part of the abdominal ca\iiy below the diaphragm. It has two openings: the cardiac orifice lying ai the junction with […]

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Posted by DAM on February 10, 2012 in The Digestive System | Short Link

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 1   (Fig. 23) The digestive system consists of the mouth, the pharynx, the oesophagus, the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestine. It also includes the associated glands as the salivan glands, the liver, and the pancreas. The mouth: –     The mouth is the first part of the digestive tube […]

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Posted by DAM on February 10, 2012 in Muscles | Short Link
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MUSCLES The red flesh of our body: – Is called the skeletal muscles because anatomically they are attached to the skeleton. The fleshy part of the muscle is called belly. It has two ends which are called attachments. Skeletal muscles as the name implies are attached mainly to bones. They may be also, attached to […]

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Types of bone

Posted by DAM on February 9, 2012 in BONE AND ALVEOLAR PROCESS | Short Link
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Types of bone  Bone is classified according to its type into: 1. Lamellar bone (mature or secondary) a- Compact (cortical) bone. b- Spongy ( Cancellous, trabecular ) bone. Compact and spongy bones are microscopically similar and are formed in the same way. 2.   Non lamellar bone (woven, primary or immature bone). 3.   Bundle bone [1] […]

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Macro and micro anatomy of the alveolar process

Macro and micro anatomy of the alveolar process The adult alveolar process is formed of: 1- The alveolar bone proper The osteoblasts that form the alveolar bone proper are derived from the dental sac. The alveolar bone proper (ABP) is a thin layer of bone that forms the inner wall of the sockets facing the […]

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Structure of bone

Structure of bone Periosteum and Endosteum The Periosteum lines the outer surface of compact bone. It consists of 2 layers: 1. Outer fibrous layer contains dense irregular connective tissue. 2. Inner cellular layer consists of osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and blood vessels. The Sharpey’s fibers (also called perforating fibers) which are collagenous fibers from the outer […]

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Age changes of cementum

Posted by DAM on February 5, 2012 in Cementum | Short Link
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Age changes of cementum   1-    Hypercementosis It is an abnormal thickening of the cementum. It may be generalized affecting all teeth such as in paget’s disease, or localized affecting one tooth. It may be diffuse through the whole root length, or limited to small area of the root. Hypercementosis is termed cementum hypertrophy if the […]

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