Pathological calcification

Pathological calcification Definition: it is the deposition of calcium salts in sites other than bones and teeth. Grossly: the calcified tissue appears chalky white and hard. Microscopically, the calcification appears as blue granules (with haematoxylin and eosin stain). There are two types of pathological calcification: 1. Dystrophic calcification: it is the most common type. Definition: […]

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PIGMENTATIONS

Posted by DAM on January 31, 2012 in Intracellular accumulation | Short Link
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PIGMENTATIONS   Endogenous pigments Melanin pigments Melanin is the pigment which colors the skin, hair, iris, and choroid. It varies in color from pale yellow to dark brown. It is formed in the skin by the melanocytes from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosinase enzyme converts tyrosine to melanin. Macrophages engulf melanin pigment and are called […]

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APOPTOSIS

Posted by DAM on January 31, 2012 in Intracellular accumulation | Short Link
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APOPTOSIS   Definition: it is a distinctive and important mode of cell death that involves single cells or small cell clusters and aims to eliminate unwanted cells It occurs through activation of an internally programmed series of events effected by a set of gene products. It overlaps and shares certain common mechanisms with necrosis. It […]

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IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY NECROSIS

IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY NECROSIS   Definition: It is the local death of the cells or tissues during life, the nucleus is affected as well as the cytoplasm. Causes of necrosis: 1-     Necrosis due to cut of arterial blood supply is called infarction. Arterial occlusion is most probably due to atherosclerosis, thrombosis and embolism. 2-     Infectious […]

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REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS

REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS (DGENERATION) It is a morphological change which occurs in the cytoplasm only and not the nucleus. It is a reversible process; the cell can return to the original state when the cause is removed.     1- HYDROPIC SWELLING OR CLOUDY SWELLING It is a reversible cell injury in which […]

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CELL INJURY

Posted by DAM on January 31, 2012 in Intracellular accumulation | Short Link
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CELL INJURY   Causes of cell injury: Hypoxia: due to cardiorespiratory failure, anemia or carbon monoxide poisoning. Physical agents: e.g.: trauma, burns, deep cold, radiation or electricity. Chemical agents: including arsenic, cyanide, mercury, insecticides, industrial chemicals, air pollutants, alcohol, narcotics and drugs. Chemical agents act directly by combining with an important cell component or indirectly […]

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CELL INJURY, INRACELLULAR ACUMULATIONS & NECROSIS

CELL INJURY, INRACELLULAR ACUMULATIONS & NECROSIS A normal cell is able to handle normal physiologic demands (homeostasis). More extensive physiologic “stresses” or abnormal stimuli may produce a number of functional and structural alterations known as cellular adaptations e.g. hypertrophy and atrophy. If limits of adaptive response are exceeded or when adaptation is not possible, a […]

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